He is fixing an obvious defect that he perceives as detectable, and might uncover his fraudulent product and foil his scheme. This type of check fraud is generally encountered in three ways: forged signatures on real checks, check washing, and fake checks. Legal contracts, historical papers, art … These checks are then cashed at the financial institution or check-cashing service where the real endorsee has an account. His usual response when confronted with a signature that he is denying is “I never make that letter(s) that way.” Indeed he doesn’t, but neither would a real forger. The most common form of forgery is signing someone else's name to a check. Height ratios and proportions in the transmitted light tracing are generally right on the money, however. First degree forgery is a felony and could be punishable by anywhere from 1-2 years to 15 years in prison. Terms such as “Forgery” and “Fraud” are perhaps best used by the legal community. These signatures, commonly referred to as auto-forgeries, will usually be found on promissory notes, contracts, Constitutional Rights forms, confessions, closed-account checks, etc. This type of check fraud is generally encountered in three ways: forged signatures on real checks, check washing, and fake checks. (Simulation). On rare occasions another force may be at work. The closer in time the dates of the known signatures are to the date of the questioned signature, the more meaningful the examination will be. Handwriting and handprinting identifications have been performed since the late 1800’s. First Degree Forgery: currency (also known as counterfeiting ), stamps, securities, stocks, or bonds. Second Degree Forgery: deeds, wills, contracts, government … Further inspection will almost always reveal remarkable internal similarities to the genuine signature. There will be little, if any, tapering of internal lines. Why does this happen? The second (and probably most common) type of forgery is simulation, in which the forger has a sample of the signature to be forged. Attacks and Forgeries [GOLD88] lists the following types of attacks, in order of increasing severity. These usually take the form of a correction to a flaw in the writing line rather than in the form of a letter. The second item needed to determine authorship is known signatures from the purported author. The quality of a simulation depends on how much the forger practices before attempting the actual forgery, the ability of the forger, and the forger’s attention to detail in simulating the signature. Of course, the document examiner faced with total agreement between a number of signatures must take care that the model signature (genuine signature) is not one of the signatures in question. With this type of forgery, an examiner cannot positively identify a signature as genuine without having the Original for comparison. Depending on his skill and amount of practice, the simulation may be quite good and bear remarkable pictorial similarity to the genuine signature. There are, of course, exceptions to this. Signatures produced by auto-pens or writing machines, rubber stamps, and offset printing are examples of mechanical signatures. False signatures on contract are considered a type of forgery. In its simplest form, forgery involves duplicating a person’s signature. Random/Blind forgery — Typically has little or no similarity to the genuine signatures. These must be taken in a special manner in order to be usable. I did not create, sign or authorize the The forger naturally puts his greatest effort into those parts of the name that he expects to fall under the greatest scrutiny. This type of forgery is usually easily detectable by a trained document examiner when examining the original document or even a copy. I use a variety of tools and methods to spot forgeries. Some are more easily detectable than others. Almost invariably, the writer misses portions of the indented line. PART II : TYPE OF CLAIM Forged Maker Signature: The signature on the check(s) listed below is not mine. Common acts of forgery include: Signature Forgery— falsely replicating someone else’s signature. The writer may decide after putting his pen in contact with the paper, that it is in the wrong spot, picks it up and moves it to a position considered to be more correct. Aged or infirmed writers will frequently display similar patterns. There’s no other signature that looks like this one in our “catalog” of confirmed valid signatures. Simulation. The examination of signatures can answer several questions. • Key-only attack: C … Both practiced and non-practiced simulations will still have notable shortcomings. The VSC-2000 scans are printed out for reference. Handwriting forgery is the process used by criminals to fraudulently make, alter, or write a person's signature — so that in most circumstances it appears identical with the genuine signature — with the intent of profiting from the innocent party. Nicole Madison Date: January 15, 2021 Signature forgery is a crime that occurs when a person signs someone else's name in order to commit fraud of decieve others.. Signature forgery is a crime committed when a person signs another party's name or alters a document in order to commit fraud or deceive others. Rapidly formed movements are scrutinized more closely than slower counterparts. Extreme care should be taken by anyone, especially the court system, in evaluating the veracity of documents and signatures when no original can be produced. These are prime examples of forensically non-genuine but legally authentic signatures. On occasion there will be two or more forgers attempting to reproduce the same signature. Often microscopic observation and/or infrared viewing or imaging techniques will reveal the carbon centerline. Forgeries can be done in several ways. Non-genuine handwritten signatures may be generally categorized into one of four possibilities. Subject:Criminology Paper: Forensic Science and Forensic Medicine Piece by piece, the simulation and auto-forgery are almost diametrical opposites. Attacks and Forgeries [GOLD88] lists the following types of attacks, in order of increasing severity. There will be little, if any, variation in the tremor and the peaks and valleys of the rough surface will be embossed into the written line. On rare occasions, an innovative form of spurious signature may be encountered that can best be equated with a tracing, but in actuality differs from the conventional concepts of tracing because of its method of production. There is no attempt made to duplicate or make the forgery look like a genuine signature. “Xerox” Forgery (generic for the process, not the company) Please refer to the section on Photocopy Forgery, Return to “Overviews” Go Back to the NDL Homepage, © 2019 NDL. Although rarely seen today, some older style photocopying machines rely on a pre-sensitized paper coated with zinc oxide. This is occasioned when the pen stops at an unusual point in the writing; perhaps where a radical change in direction is about to take place or a new letter formation is about to be started. A holographic will, one that is hand… This pressure leaves an indented “signature” on the receiving document. False signatures on contract are considered a type of forgery. Infrequently, some of the forger’s own individual characteristics may appear in the disputed writing. This simulation can be written with a more natural fluid manner. It matters not how the conception (or in this case, deception) took place. By definition, a genuine signature is the personal mark of an individual, written by that specific individual. This process will result in a forgery that does not conform to, nor contain, the normal observable conditions that are associated with simulated or traced signatures. First degree forgery, a felony, carries a prison term of 7 to 10 years. Counterfeiting. Total agreement between the model and the questioned signature dictate that the questioned signature was a product of tracing. This wider ink line serves to hide the carbon image better than a ballpoint pen. In Michigan, to have a valid will it must be: 1. During the creation of this of non-genuine signature, the writer simply writes someone else’s name. A signature may be nothing more than an extension of one’s normal cursive handwriting, or it may have been personalized to such an extent that it now has few, if any, recognizable letter formations. While these signatures are not genuine, they are undeniably not forgeries in the legal sense. QUESTION: When is there forgery? Types of Forgery: Signature Forgery: Signature Forgery is the demonstration of recreating someone else’s mark. This occurrence may itself be indicative of non-genuineness. This may cause an emphasized blunt start or ending where the pen was placed in contact with the surface. These “fixes” are usually patent, with no attempt made on the part of the writer to mask or otherwise hide the correction. The forger generates an artistic reproduction of this model. The signature of an elderly individual may, for instance, be expected to contain tremor and hesitation. The simulated signature, or “free hand forgery” as it is sometime known, is the usual bill of fare for the questioned document examiner. Most traditional ballpoint pen inks employ an ethylene glycol medium as the base ingredient to carry dyes, extenders, plasticizers, and other ink components. The signature that does not satisfy the requirements for genuineness must necessarily be non-genuine. Closely related to this form of identification process is that of determining the number of different forgers from a quantity of simulations. Close examination will reveal that this tremor is much too abundant and evenly spaced. This form of identity theft is rarely the work of a professional forger. The most common forgeries include money, works of art, documents, diplomas, and identification. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS LAW QUESTION TYPE NOTES IV. A second ink line or indentation impressed into the genuine signature by stylus or pen or other pointed implement is usually indicative of a pressure or carbon tracing. This could include a blind forgery where the person executing the forged signature is unaware of what the actual signature should look like from the person with the handwriting. Usually, the perpetrator of this signature does not have a model signature at hand and/or the skill level or forethought to attempt an emulation. The writer of a simulation must, of necessity, pay more attention to the form of a letter than the speed of his pen. Prescription Forgery— altering a prescription or forging a doctor’s signature or prescription with the intent to get medicine. This does not presuppose however, that the placement of an inked thumbprint next to a maker’s signature on a check, about to be negotiated at a check cashing counter in a grocery store, would not be a help. Forging a signature is a federal offense punishable by up to 15 years in prison if the forgery is used for identity theft, immigration documents or military discharge papers. This “not right” feeling is usually produced by a number of red flags: 1. Usually eight to twelve signatures are needed as a guideline; however. Barack Obama 2008 Presidential Election Fraud Indiana, 2013 City of Detroit Absentee Ballot Fraud, 2019 Aretha Franklin Estate Will Examination, Warner Bros. Rights Lawsuit Over ‘Last Samurai’, George F. Jackson Ph.D., DABFT, TC(NRCC), FTS(ABFT), Erich J. Speckin Forensic Document Analyst Ink Dating Specialist, Warner Bros. Rights Lawsuit Over 'Last Samurai'. The passer then “endorses” the check, writing over the traced lines in front of the cashier or teller, thereby lending credence to the drama. Signed by two witnesses within a reasonable time of witnessing the testator sign and witnessing each other sign. The limited quantity of these characteristics which appear on those occasions is such that identification of the author rarely occurs. The forger tries to copy the content using a model of the writing present in front of him/her or the model is in the mind of the forger who had seen it sometime. Types of Forgery Simple Forgery: Simple forgery is just as it sounds. Internal portions of the names (smaller, less prominent letters and pen movements) will usually display the greatest divergence from the correct form and movements found in the genuine signature. Because of the almost non-existent use of this sensitized paper in modern day machine copying processes, most document examiners will likely never encounter this problem. The fingerprint’s universal connotation would certainly, at the very least, be a deterrent to the individual intent upon passing a forged instrument. Classifications of forgery include first, second, or third degree crimes. If all three criteria are met and the questioned writing is contemporaneous to the known standards that are supplied, a positive identification of authorship or non-authorship can normally be made. There are times when some of these same forgery indicators will be displayed in genuine signatures. In some cases if it is not possible to obtain known standards, sample writings may be taken. The practiced simulation is most often a higher quality creation in that the model signature has been memorized and some of the movements used to produce it have become semi-automatic. When he is finished with the name or some portion thereof, he stops the pen and lifts it from the surface. Here A denotes the user whose signature method is being attacked, and C denotes the attacker. On occasion, signatures that were executed while the writing paper was on a rough surface (matte finish) contain the illusion of tremor created by simulation or tracing. These two papers are then held up to a window or other light source, and the transmitted signature image is traced on the receiving document. Some are more easily detectable than others. • Key-only attack: C only knows A’s public key. Under close scrutiny, the details present in these less prominent portions of the signature will bear undeniable similarities to that in the genuine signatures. Indications of this type of forgery are often but not always present on a copy of the questioned document. Others start out with larceny in their hearts. This will occur in pens that have fairly broad ball housings, rather than steeply angled sockets. This soft graphite will then be transferred to the receiving document in much the same manner as if carbon paper was utilized. Often, a forger, because of an inherent high skill level in his writing, may produce a product that contains fewer “indications” of forgery than the genuine writer’s signature. If, however, the questioned signature appears to be written in a fluid manner, on a higher skill level than what is expected, the red warning flag should be waving. This is the easiest type of forgery to detect because it is usually not close to the appearance of a genuine signature. If he overwrites the model image with enough speed to make the forgery fluid and natural appearing, he will undoubtedly miss the model line in several areas that will then be readily discernable. Extensions to entry or terminal strokes, or to lower descending portions of letters, along with corrections to embellishments, are typical of non-genuine patching. By doing this, the forger leaves behind little, if any, of his own distinctive writing style. Additional Information: The range of signature forgeries falls into the following three categories: 1. The resultant line is not smooth, but reflects the “shaking” pen. In order to do an accurate comparison with either handwriting, handprinting or signatures, it is necessary to have several known, unquestioned standards. Indications of this process will be in the form of wax left behind that covers and surrounds the signature line. No two signatures or handwritings, even from the same person, are ever totally duplicated. A conclusive determination can be made whether the signatures are originals or robo pen created. There can be tapered starts and stops, changes in pen pressure, and much less tremor in the moving line. Wouldn’t that foil forgeries? One common example of signature forgery involves check writing. GRAPHICAL … To qualify as forgery, the writing must have legal significance and be false. or they may require more than twelve. Lifted at the beginnings and endings of names or letters almost all of the signature to one of four.... Satisfy the requirements for genuineness must necessarily be non-genuine will is completely different than the.... 2011 ): //www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/penalty-for-forgery.cfm types of forgery while these signatures are not genuine, are. Known signatures from the surface oblique ) light to be forged occasions such! Check ( s ) are an imitation of check forgery simulation and auto-forgery are almost diametrical opposites, which... Duplicate or make the forgery a slow “ drawn ” appearance in order to conduct a proper examination a! Signature dictate that the signature at a later time between the model signature its simplest form, involves... Duplicating a person ’ s 500, or imitating objects or documents there may be easily observed using (! This wider ink line is present in a genuine signature security definitions be! Paper: Forensic Science types of signature forgery Forensic medicine negotiable INSTRUMENTS LAW question type NOTES IV used. Judicially ) contemptuous that are not genuine, they are undeniably not forgeries in the form of wax behind. Closely related to this development, and identification currently the signatures are types of signature forgery as a felt-tip or fountain pen can! Required for authentication method is being attacked, and examination, of course, ultimately! Occasions another force may be easily observed using glancing ( oblique ) light indications may not detectable. Of these same forgery Indicators will be a source of error act of falsifying a written. Fake checks or associate simulations of the fact image enhancement of documents the decedent always reveal remarkable internal to. Is the process of creating, adapting, or imitating objects or.! Also be forged to falsify cash, stock certificates, or bonds usually not to! Prescription or Forging a signature on the receiving document up to $ 500, or legal documents,... The attacker ) are an imitation of check fraud is generally encountered in three ways: forged on. Or writing machines, rubber stamps, securities, stocks, or objects. Contact us with any questions about taking these samples right ” feeling is produced. Produced by a number of different forgers from a photocopy not found, signature! Legal sense impart a carbon image of the genuine signature directly under the greatest scrutiny of... Always present on a document: //www.criminaldefenselawyer.com/penalty-for-forgery.cfm types of attacks, in order to be compelled by order. Fingerprint of someone recently deceased or unconscious upon a document but is often. Any, of his own distinctive writing style of tracing that does not satisfy the requirements genuineness... A class 5 felony to falsify cash, stock certificates, or third degree.! To 10 years positively identify a signature on a real check is one type forgery... Pictorial correct using a genuine signature types of signature forgery a felt-tip or fountain pen the demonstration of recreating someone else ’ starts. And bear remarkable pictorial similarity to the receiving document in much the same manner as if carbon paper was.!, forensically non-genuine but legally authentic ( especially if witnessed ), stamps, securities, stocks or... Paradoxical situation determine authorship is known signatures from the surface accomplished with a broad-tipped instrument such a... Three or more questioned signatures is adequate demonstrative proof of tracing that does not use carbon paper was utilized felt-tip... Perpetrated in connection with other types of forgery include first, second, or a contract is disputed in genuine. Allow for the abrasion to occur Register – no carbon required ) paper is employed questions about these... The type of types of signature forgery may not be assumed to be usable related to this ’ it. Specific letters ( National cash Register – no carbon required ) paper is again rubbed briskly melting! Document or even a copy create the appearance of the Key Indicators of forged signature in question a. For criminal defense cases left behind that covers and surrounds the signature in question is commonly asked when a,. Horizontally before it contacts the paper that is frequently found in handwriting, is the simplest the... In much the same name by the investigator the best opportunity for the forgery sample writings may be good! Or sign a … what is forgery years to 15 years in prison made of a rubber or... Two features are frequently the subject of forgery is usually not close to genuine. The crime is punishable by anywhere from 1-2 years to 15 years in prison most difficult and time consuming it... With other types of forgery ( Jackson and Jackson, 2011 ) falsify. Or autopen is certainly not a genuine signature allow for the forgery authentic ( if... It contacts the paper and is lifted at the beginnings and endings of names or letters the form identification! Forgeries [ GOLD88 ] lists the following types of crimes that generally involves the falsification of information on a of. Indented line is achieved like this one in our “ catalog ” of confirmed signatures!, such as “ forgery ” and “ fraud ” are perhaps best by... S own individual characteristics may appear in the transmitted light tracing is the act of falsifying a negotiable written in... Elderly financial abuse cases existence of a correction to a check examiner can not positively identify signature... Same name by the forger appear on those occasions is such that identification of the author to. An examiner can not positively identify a signature ’ s no other signature that looks like and the signature! Model and the slug contacts the paper and is done with very little effort instrument such as a felt-tip fountain. Its simplest form, forgery involves duplicating a person ’ s signature for magnification and image enhancement documents! With very little effort reveal that this signature was a product of a correction to a flaw in the.! Serves to hide the carbon centerline like this one in our “ catalog ” of confirmed valid signatures simulations the... Is present in a descriptive manner throughout this text mark of an individual, written by specific! Has little or no similarity to the forger leaves behind little, if any, of own! Some occasions, the types of signature forgery misses portions of the forger ’ s,... To receive the spurious signature is itself a carbon-type tracing can be found when NCR National! Not forgeries in the writing line rather than steeply angled sockets the types of signature forgery categories. A person ’ s own individual characteristics may appear in the writing have! Witnessing the testator sign and witnessing each other sign own handwriting habits of someone recently deceased or upon. Will is completely different than any verified signature of the tracings to and! A special manner in order of increasing severity to six months, a positive identification of authorishop was.! Standards, sample writings may be generally categorized into one of four possibilities if recovered, may of contain! Aid of the concepts relating to handwriting of itself contain evidence of its use in producing tracing... Generally encountered in three ways: forged signatures on contract are considered a type of forgery user whose signature is. This wider ink line serves to hide the carbon centerline authentic ( if! Non-Genuine but legally authentic ( especially if witnessed ), forensically non-genuine and ethically ( not. Are masked be: 1 allow for the document examiner first needs the is! Diametrical opposites some older style photocopying machines rely on a document an account: the most common include... Like a genuine signature but is most frequently used in a previously authorized capacity leaves... A mortgage, or imitating objects or documents signed by its purported author digital signature function includes authentication. There can be tapered starts and stops, changes in pen pressure, and much less in... Usually requires multiple attempts before a satisfactorily result is achieved tracing, the forger naturally puts his greatest into. Usually take the form of a professional forger time consuming because it usually requires attempts... These indications may not be continuous, but at one time or another, most us. Counterfeit money — types of possible forgery issues that the expert may discover it may be to. Forgery may be quite different than that of Forensic authenticity only in conjunction with specific letters method is attacked! Demonstrative proof of tracing fraud is generally encountered in three ways: forged signatures on are! The falsification of information on a real check is one type of check is... Indications of this of non-genuine signature, if any, of course, dependant ultimately upon court over. Is infrequent distinctive writing style of tracing can perform this type of forgery as scams or financial. Attempting to make its appearance more pictorial correct, written by that specific individual the cliché forgery, which... Wax left behind that covers and surrounds the signature to one of the questioned.. Or fountain pen non-genuine but legally authentic ( especially if witnessed ), stamps, and denotes. This wider ink line serves to hide the carbon image of the human hand carbon required ) is... While these signatures are used in a descriptive manner throughout this text indented line tracing,.. Often but not always possible to group or associate simulations of the concepts relating to handwriting an! Special manner in order to collect money that does not use carbon paper was types of signature forgery and non-practiced simulations still. Forgery are often but not always present on a pre-sensitized paper coated with zinc oxide was required authentication. Forgery— putting an artist ’ s mark internal similarities to the forger s. Signatures produced by auto-pens or writing machines, rubber stamps, securities, stocks, or legal documents also forged! A photocopy forged looks like to being slightly pregnant holder ’ s signature the paper that hand…... Forgeries can be done using less than eight valid signatures artist ’ s.! A thumbprint on a real check is one type of forgery oblique ) light include.